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广东高等教育自学考试英语-真题及答案01

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2011年 1月广东省高等教育自学考试英语语言学 问卷课程代码 06422)

I.Blank-filling (20%)Fill in the following blanks with a word ,whose initial letter has been given.

1. The 3 branches of phonetics are labeled articulatory phonetics ,auditory phonetics ,and

a    phonetics.

2.    When 2 different forms are identical in every way except for one sound segment which occurs in the

same place in the strings ,they are said to be in a m    pair .

3.    R    motivation refers to the fact that learners learn a second language for external purposes .

4.    Later Noam Chomsky prefers this innate endowment as UG ,i.e. U    Grammar.

5.    In "NP (→Deg )A(pp) ……", the dots in the rule indicate that other c    o_ptions are available .

6.    The articulatory apparatus of human being are contained in 3 important areas :the p    cavitythe

oral cavity ,and the nasal cavity.

7.    L    refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech community .

8. H    refers to the senserelation between a more general ,more inclusive word and a more

specific word .

9.    The description of a language at a given point in time is a s    study.

10.    The study of how speakers of a language use sentences to effect successful communication is called

p    .

11. The structure corresponding to the final syntactic output of the sentence which results from

appropriate transformations is called s    structure.

12.    The term d    , first used by Ferguson in 1959,refers to a sociolinguistic situation similar to

bilingualism .

13. Learners' independent system of the second language which is of neither the second language is

known as i    .

14.    The sound[p]in pit is pronounced with a strong puff of air, which is said to be a    .

15.    C    model states that in word comprehension words are analyzed by hearers from beginning to

end.

16.    S    is concerned with the inherent meaning of the linguistic form and is the collection of all the

features of the linguistic form .

17.    Major lexical categories are Noun, Verb , Adjective , and P    .

18. S    is the sub-field of linguistics that studies the relation between linguistic and society

between the uses of language and social structures.

19.    P    is concerned with the progress of language comprehension and production.

20.    Linguistics studies not any particular language ,but languages in g____.

II.    Multiple choice(20%)Choose the best answer to the following items.

21.    __refers to the study of the internal structure of words and the rules by which words are formed . A.Syntax B. Etymology C. Lexicology D. Morphology

22.    ___ aims to discover how speech sounds in a language form patterns and how these sounds are used

to convey meaning in linguistic communication .

A. Phonetics B. Phonemics C. Phonology D. Phonotactics

23.    Language ___ refers to a natural ability for learning a second language.

A. aptitude B. competence C. performance D. attitude

24.    ___ is a personal dialect of an individual speaker that combines elements regarding regional ,social, gender, and age variations .

A. Idiolect B. Pidgin C. Sociolect D. Creole

 

25.    A(n) ___ is a word formed by combining parts of other words , e.g. smog .

A. back -formation B. blend C. abbreviation D. clipping

26.    The traditional and the only way to study the brain in the past was through ____ studies .

A. experimental B. surgical C. autopsy D. observational

27.___ refers to the phenomenon that words having different meanings have the same form ,i.e. Different words are identical in sound or spelling ,or in both .

A. Polysemy B. Synonym C. Homophone D. Homonymy

28.The arrow in the phrase structure rule "S →NP VP " is read as ___.

A. is equal to B. generates C. has D. consists of

29.___ of neighbouring sound is , for the most part ,caused by articulatory or physiological progress .

A. Assimilation B. Formalization C. Derivation D. Patterning

30.The drive that people learn a foreign language because of the wish to identify with the target culture is called ____ motivation .

A. instrumental B. resultative C. integrative D. intrinsic

31There are different types of affixes pr morphemes .The affix "ed" in the word "learned" is known as

a(n) __.

A.derivational morpheme B. free morpheme

C. inflectional morpheme D. free form

32.If a linguistic study aims to describe and analyzed the language people actually use ,it is said to be ___

A. descriptive B. prescriptive C. synchronic D. diachronic

33.Transformational Generative Grammar was introduced by __ in 1957.

A. L. Bloomfield B. F. Saussure C. N. Chomsky D.M.A.K Halliday

34. Of the following sound combination ,only ___ is permissible according to the sequential rules in English .

A. mible B. bmil C. imlb D. ilbm

35    Which of the following English words is formed by clipping ?

A. smog B.UNESCO C. baby-sit D. disco

36    Of the following words ,____ belongs to the open class word .

A. emai B. but C. the D. they

37    The sense relation for the pair of words "doctor and patient "is __

A. synonymy B. hyponymy C. antonymy D. homonymy

38    In learning a foreign language,instances of mother tongue interference can be found act the level of

___.

A. pronunciation B. vocabulary C. syntax D. all of the above

39    According to F .de Saussure,____ refers to the system of language .

A. langue B. parole C. competence D. performance

40.The utterance "We 're already working 25 hours a day, 8 days a week " obviously violates the maxim

of ___

A. quality B. quantity C. relation D. manner

III.    True of false judgement (20%)Judge whether the following statements are true or false .Write

T in ye corresponding bracket for a true statement and F for a false one .

41.Damage to parts of the brain in front of the central sulcus will cause fluent aphasia .

42.D-structure is formed by the XP rule in accordance with the head's supercanonization properties .

 

43.An illocution act is the act performed by or resulting from saying something .It is the consequence of

the utterance .

44.The LAD was described as an imaginary "black box "which is said to contain rules that are specific

only to human languages .

45.Componential analysis is a way proposed by the structure semantics to analyze lexical word meaning .

46.Garden path sentenceis an awkward sentencethat misleads the speakersand takes them down the

garden path to a wrong direction .

47.Acronyms are words derives from the initials and ending of several words .

48. Diglossia refers to the dialect having to do with separation brought about by different social

conditions.

49.In daily life people often see the situation in which adult speak differently when talking to little

children ,they use a special speech called motherese.

50.Phonology is the study of how speech sounds are produced by human speech organs

IV.    Explain the following notions briefly (25%)

51.broad transcription vs narrow transcription

52.selection restriction

53.speech act theory

54.Critical Period Hypothesis

55.Draw a tree diagram for the surface structure of "A man will find the dog"

V.    Write a passage of 120-150 words on the following topic .(15%)

56. What are the major views concerning the study of meaning ?

部分参考答案:

1. acoustic 2. minimal 3. Resultative 4. Universal 5. complement

6.    pharyngeal 7. Langue 8. Hyponymy 9.synchronic 10. pragmatics

11.surface 12. diaglossia 13. Interlanguage 14. aspirated 15. Cohort

16. Sense 17. Preposition 18. Siciolinguistics 19. Psycholinguistics 20. general

21.    D 22.C 23.A 24.A 25. B 26. C 27. D 28.D 29. A 30.C

31. C 32.A 33.C 34. A 35.D 36. A 37. C 38.D 39.A 40.A

41.F 42.F 43. F 44.T 45.T 46. F 47. F 48.F 49. T 50.F

2011    年 10月广东省高等教育自学考试英语语言学 问卷(课程代码 06422)

I.Blank-filling (20%)Fill in the following blanks with a word, whose initial letter has been given.

1.    The totality of linguistic varieties possessed by an individual constitutes his linguistic r    .

2.    I    motivation refers to learners learning the second language for enjoyment or pleasure from

learning.

3.    The phonetic transcription, n    transcription ,is normally used by phoneticians to give minute

and detailed descriptions of speech sounds.

4. The way that new words are coined from already existing words by “subtracting ” an affix thought to

be part of the old word is called b    .

5.    The meaning of a word can be dissected into meaning components called semantic f    .

6.    In addition to social changes, one of the most pervasive sources of language change seems to be the

continual process of cultural t    across generations.

7.    P    is the study of sounds used in linguistic communication.

8.    When the vocal cords are drawn wide apart to let air go through without vibration, the sounds thus

produced are v    .

 

9.    The social group that is singled out for any special study is named as the s    community.

10. According to N. Chomsky, c    refers to the ideal user ’sknowledge of the rules of his

language .

11.    P    refers to the realization of langue in actual use.

12.    The notion of c    is essential to the pragmatic study of language.

13.    Damage to parts of the left cortex behind the central sulcus results in a type of aphasia called f    

aphasia.

14.    The c    view of meaning is based on the presumption that one can derive meaning from or

reduce meaning to observable contexts.

15. Lexical d    task is a kind of experiment psycholinguistics employ to investigate lexical

access.

16. A theory which explicitly employs the notion “concept isthe semantic t    proposed by

Ogden and Richards in their book The Meaning of Meaning.

17. Clear [ l ] and dark [ l ] are allophones of the sameone phoneme /l/. They never take the same

position in sound combinations, thus they are said to be in c    distribution.

18.    Since there are often intermediate forms between the two members of an antonymous pair, so they are

called g    antonyms.

19.    S    is concerned with the inherent meaning of the linguistic form.

20.    A t    experiment is a technique that is used to study the determinants of sentence processing

difficulty.

II.    Multiple choice(15%)Choose the best answer to the following items.

21. Changes in a language are changes in the grammar of the speakers of the language. This means that

phonemes,    , words and grammatical rules may be borrowed , added , lost or altered.

A. phrases B. sentences C. morphemes D. utterance

22.    The consonant [ f ] in English can be correctly described as having the following phonetic features :

A. voiceless, bilabial, stop B. voiceless, labiodental, fricative

C. voiced , bilabial, stop D. voiced, labiodental, fricative

23.The study of language as a whole is often called     .

A. universal linguistics B. common linguistics

C. prescriptive linguistics D. general linguistics

24.In the phrase structurerule “S→NP VP”the arrow can be read as     .

A. is equal to B. consists of C. has D. generates

25.The illocutionary point of     is to express the psychological state specified in the utterance.

A. representatives B. commissives C. expressives D declarations

26.Transformational Generative Grammar was introduced by     in 1957.

A. L. Bloomfield B. F. Saussure C. N. Chomsky D.M.A.F. Halliday

27.    motivation occurs when the learner desires to learn a second language because of the wish to

identify with the target culture.

A. Instrumental B. Functional C. Integrative D. Social

28.While different words may have the same or similar meaning , the same word may have more than one

meaning. This kind of words are called     .

A. polysemic words B. homographs C. homonyms D. synonyms

29.The term     linguistics may be defined as a way of referring to the approach which studies

language changes over various periods of time and at various historical stages.

 

A. synchronic B. diachronic C. comparative D. historical comparative

30.Speech act theory was originated with the British philosopher ____ in the late 50 ’s of the 20th century.

A. M.A.F. Halliday B. L. Bloomfield C . J. Searle D. J. Austin

31.If the linguistic study aims to lay down rules for correct and standard behavior in using language ,it is

said to be     .

A. descriptive B. prescriptive C. synchronic D. diachronic

32.In the case of spit, the consonant [ p ] is said to be     .

A. aspirated B. voiced C. unaspirated D. unprounceable

33.What the element -“es ” indicates is third person singular ,present tense ,the eleme-netd ” past tense, “

and “-ing ”progressive aspect .Since they are the smallest units of language and meaningful ,they are also

    .

A. phonemes B. phones C. allophones D. morphemes

34.Synoymous are classified into several kinds .This kind to which ‘lass ‘’gbirel lon’g isacnadlled ___

synonyms.

A. stylistic B. dialectal C. emotive D. collocational

35.In a speech community People have something in common     : a language or a particular variety of

language and rules for using it..

A.socially B. linguistically C. culturally D. pragmatically

III.    True of false judgement (20%)

36.    The interactionist view holds that language develops as a result of the complex interplay between the

human characteristics of the child and the environment in which the child develops .

37.    A creole is said to be formed when a pidgin has become the primary language of a speech

community ,and is acquired by the children of that speech community as their native language .

38.    Garden path sentence is an awkward sentence that misleads the speakers and takes them down the

garden path to a wrong direction .

39.    A phoneme is the smallest linguistic unit of sound that can distinguish two words .

40.    Register refers to the type of utterance which is selected as appropriate to the type oftypology .

41.    Phonology studies the functioning of the speech sounds.

42.    Predication analysis was proposed by the British linguist J. Searle to analyze the meaning of

utterance .

43.    Specifiers have both special semantic and syntactic roles since they help make more precise the

meaning of the head and mark a phrase boundary.

44.    Different language offer people different ways of expressing the world around, they think and speak

differently, this is also known as linguistic relativity.

45.    Metacognitive strategies deal with the wayside learners interact or communicate with other speakers,

native or non-native .

IV.    Explain the following notions briefly (25%)

46.    derivational morpheme

47.    IPA( International Phonetic Alphabet)

48.    cultural transmission

49.    Deep Structure vs. Surface Structure

50.    The naming theory

V. Essay question (20%)

 

51. According to Austin ,what are the three acts a person is possibly performing while making an

utterance ? Give an example.

参考答案

1.repertoire 2.Intrinsic 3.narrow 4.back-formation 5.features6.transmission 7.Phon

ology 8.voiceless 9.speech 10.competence11.Parole 12.context 13. fluent

14.contextualist 15.dicision

16.triangle 17.complementary 18.gradable 19.Sense

20.timed-reading

21.    C 22. B 23.D 24. B 25.C 26.C 27.C 28. A 29.B 30.C

31.B 32.C 33.D 34.B 35.B

36.T 37.T 38.F 39.T 40.F 41.T 42. F 43. T 44.T 45. F

46. Morphemes that change the meaning or lexical category of the words to which they attach. 47. It is

a standardized and internationally accepted system of phonetic transcription.

48. While human capacity for language has a genetic basis, i.e., we were all born with the ability to ac quire language, the details of any language system are not genetically transmitted, but instead have to be taught and learned.

Language is passed on from one generation to the next through teaching and learning, rather than by i

nstinct 49. The first, formed by the XP rule in a accordance with the head's subcategorization propertie

s ,is called deep stmcture.

The second, corresponding to the final syntactic form of the sentence which results from appropriate tr ansformations, is called surface structure

50.    One of the oldest notions concerning meaning, and also a very primitive one, was the naming theor

y proposed by the ancient Greek scholar Plato. The words used in a language are taken to be labels of t he objects they stand for.

51.    locutionary act     the act of uttering words, phrases, clauses. It ?

s an act of conveying literal meaning by means of syntax, lexicon, and phonology. Namely .,the act of s aying something :the utterance of a sentence with determinate sense and reference.(言内 行为 指的 是

用 句子 来 叙 述, 报 告, 描写 。 言 内行 为 指话 语过 程 本 身, 诸如 : 句法 , 词 汇与 发言

等 。 ) illocutionary act     the act of expressing the speaker ?

s intention; it is the act performed in saying something ;its force is identical with the speaker ?

s intention. The making of a statement, offer promise, etc, in uttering a sentence, by virtue of the conve ntional force associated with it. the act of using a sentence to perform a function such as command, re quest, etc(言外行为是指说话过程中通过话语的一些约定俗成的关联力量进行陈述,承诺等。说话

带有目的性。 )

perlocutionary act --- the act performed by or resulting from saying something, it ?

s the consequence of, or the change brought about by the utterance; it is the act perfomed by saying so mething, the bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering the sentence, such effects b

eing special to the circumstances. the results or effects that are produced by means of saying sth(言 后

行为是指行为本身就是讲话的结果。即讲话所产生的情感,思想,行动等的某种反应。 )

Illocutionary force: the intention or purpose underlying the act of saying sth. (speaker ?

s meaning) e.g. You have left the door wide open

The locutionary act performed by the speaker is that he has uttered all the words“you”“have”“d oor”“open”etc. and expressed what the words literally mean. locutionary: utterance of all the word

The illocutionary act performed by the speaker is that by making such an utterance, he has expre

 

ssed his intention of speaking ,i.e. asking sb. to close the door.“ormaking a complaint

The prelocutionary act refers to the effect of the utterance. If the hearer gets the speaker ?

s message and sees the speaker means to ask someone to close the door, the speaker has successfully br ought about the change in the real world he has intended to; then the prelocutionary act is successfully

performed. perlocutionary : the hearer close the door or his refusal to comply with the request

 

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